This is a potential problem for both theory promo reduction and explanatory reduction (though to differing degrees).
For example, claims that sociology is based promo on psychology, or that economics is based on sociology and psychology would be met with reservations.Context-dependence is primarily a problem for models of theory reduction; some models of explanatory reduction take the code organismal context for granted without being committed to reducing it molecularly (as seen in team explanations offered in tanneur developmental biology).26 One observation he made was that the code sciences can be arranged roughly in a linear macdo hierarchy particle physics, solid state auto physics, chemistry, molecular biology, cellular biology, physiology, psychology, social sciences in that the tanneur elementary entities of one science obeys the principles tanneur of the science.Descartes sought to explain the movement of the heart promo not in terms of function but rather by appeal only to the matter in motion composing the circulating blood that is heated and thus team expands akin to fermentation ( Description of the Human Body ).Another significant tanneur challenge to reductionism auto stems from the fact that higher level biological structures and processes can be (and typically tanneur are) realized by different kinds of molecular processes, so that many molecular kinds can correspond to one higher level kind ( Section.2 ).27 In mathematics edit In mathematics, reductionism can be interpreted as the philosophy that all mathematics can (or ought to) be based on a common foundation, which for modern mathematics is usually axiomatic set theory.Examples include Joseph Needhams Order reduction and Life (1936 Kurt Goldsteins The Organism (1934/1963.S.Descartes (1637 Discourses, Part.Principles of classical genetics (e.g., segregation) are explained by cellular processes (e.g., the behavior of chromosomes in meiosis) because the higher level kinds picked out auto by cytology are causally relevant.23 The limits of the application of reductionism are claimed to be especially evident at levels of organization with higher amounts navigo of complexity, including living cells, 24 neural networks, code ecosystems, society, and other systems formed from assemblies of large numbers of diverse components linked.From this perspective, theory reduction of classical to molecular genetics is impossible as the manymany relations between macdo classical and molecular kinds make any reductive account radically disjunctive.In the other case the organization has a temporal dimension, and the aim of the inquiry is to discover sequential and simultaneous orders of change in the spatially ordered and linked parts of organic bodies.The higher level situation, which is determined promo by the molecular constellation, then can be derived logically from this molecular specification of the higher level situation.Whereas accounts of theory reduction have to acknowledge that reduction (in this sense) has not yet been code achieved and must appeal to its in principle possibility, accounts of explanatory reduction comport well with the piecemeal nature of actual scientific research. 36 Free promo will edit Main article: Free will Philosophers of the Enlightenment worked to insulate human free will from reductionism.
Reduktion stammen aber bei den meisten Reduktionen von elektronenabgebenden Verbindungen (Reduktionsmittel die mit der Elektronenabgabe gleichzeitig oxidiert werden.
Dawkins, Richard (1976 The Selfish Gene.
Thus, the debate about reduction in biology has not only revolved around whether epistemic reduction is possible, but also which notions of epistemic reduction are operative in actual scientific reasoning.